BMC Genomics 17, 668. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2993-7, Weijers, D., Wagner, D. (2016). Biol. Rapid Publ. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis. The auxin response factor transcription factor family in soybean: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development and water stress. S6: stage 6, central callose stage; S7: stage 7, meiotic stage; S8: stage 8, tetrad stage; S9: stage 9, young microspore stage. 22, 1056–1068. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.09.009, Edger, P. P., Smith, R., McKain, M. R., Cooley, A. M., Vallejo-Marin, M., Yuan, Y., et al. Donald P. Weeks, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2017. Likewise, TaARF24 has apparently lost the homoeologous copies derived from the A and B subgenomes, suggestive of either gene loss after polyploidization or incomplete coverage in the wheat reference genome. Plant Cell Environ. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of ARF genes among wheat and its relatives, including red wild einkorn wheat (Triticum urartu), the wheat D genome progenitor Tausch’s goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii), emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum), and barley (Hordeus vulgare), identifying 19 ARF genes in T. urartu, 23 in A. tauschii, 43 in T. turgidum, and 22 in H. vulgare. Dexter, A.K. Family: Poaceae. ARF genes are a class of plant-specific transcription factors (B3-type) that regulate the expression of auxin response genes. Dimerization and DNA binding of auxin response factors. PloS One 9, e84203. doi: 10.4161/psb.2.3.4156, Ulmasov, T., Hagen, G., Guilfoyle, T. J. (2012). TaARF14 and TaARF16 are potential targets of tae-miR167d, and showed a gradual decrease in their transcript levels after an initial induction during drought stress, whereas they were both induced by ABA treatment (Supplementary Figures S4, S5). We measured the genetic variation and selective pressures of ARF genes among and within T. aestivum, T. urartu, A. tauschii, T. turgidum, and H. vulgare with the software DnaSP 5. Hence, cereal viruses have to be controlled, not only in the field but also through the collaborative efforts of the plant quarantine services inland and at the borders, involving all the Middle Eastern countries. These results indicate TaARF members of the homoeologous triads show a mixture of conserved and divergent expression under abiotic stress and ABA treatment. 6:73. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00073, Shi, Z.-H., Zhang, C., Xu, X.-F., Zhu, J., Zhou, Q., Ma, L.-J., et al. The use of the T. turgidum–Ae. Cas9 and sgRNA expression cassettes can be delivered together on the same construct or delivered separately into plants. Front. Biol. Calcium also plays an important role in metabolic functions such as muscular function, nervous stimuli, enzymatic and hormonal activities, and transport of oxygen. 28, 214–222. In this study, the clustering of rice genes in Clades IIb and III indicates that the Triticeae underwent two tandem duplications (TaARF12 and TaARF13, TaARF23-A.1 and TaARF23-A.2) after their evolutionary separation from rice, but before the separation of the three wheat progenitor species. 3.2 end tally of t. aestivum nac genes 35 3.3 effectiveness of the orf identification methodology 38 3.4 subdomain conservation 41 3.5 phylogenetic analysis 45 3.6 identity between triticum aestivum full length homeologues 52 4 discussion 55 4.1 performance of the gene family detection pipeline 55 vi doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-043015-112122, Wilmoth, J. C., Wang, S., Tiwari, S. B., Joshi, A. D., Hagen, G., Guilfoyle, T. J., et al. Supplementary Figure 1 | Conserved motif analysis of the wheat ARF protein family, identified through MEME suite. Each TaARF gene is indicated by a vertical red line on the outer-most circle. 96, 5844–5849. In addition, 34 TaARF genes belonging to 15 homoeologous groups (TaARF3, TaARF4, TaARF5, TaARF9, TaARF10, TaARF11, TaARF12, TaARF13, TaARF15, TaARF17, TaARF18, TaARF19, TaARF20, TaARF21, and TaARF22) were up-regulated in response to all four treatments (NaCl, PEG6000, cold stress, and ABA), while several TaARF genes responded only to an individual stress (Figures 4B, C). Often, the delivery involves particle bombardment in which metals are coated with target DNA and then fired at a high rate into plant cells (Fig. Using a standard of 2-fold change (either up- or down-regulated) with respect to control seedlings, 23 of 24 TaARF homoeologous groups were induced in response to NaCl treatment, the sole exception being TaARF13-B, which was repressed by NaCl treatment (Figure 4B). We highlight the plant quarantine service and the prevention methods. However, these lines are fully male-fertile with starch-filled normal pollen when grown under control conditions, suggesting that genes responsible for the TGMS phenotype may themselves be highly expressed between the stage 6 and stage 9 of anther development. We investigated TaARF gene duplication events by pairwise alignments based on previously used criteria with minor adjustment: (a) the pairwise alignment should cover more than 80% of the longer gene; (b) the percentage identity in the aligned region should be higher than 70%; and (c) only one duplication event was counted for tightly linked genes (Gill et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2016). doi: 10.4161/psb.20790, Krogan, N. T., Yin, X., Ckurshumova, W., Berleth, T. (2014). Another method of delivery uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the Ti plasmid (see Chapter 23: Plasmids). Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of auxin response factor gene family in Medicago truncatula. In agreement with their transcriptional responses, the promoter sequences of these TaARF genes contained a number of ABREs and DREs (Figure 4A), indicating that these TaARFs may have potential roles in the crosstalk between drought and ABA signaling pathways (Jaillais and Chory, 2010). AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 Is Essential for Pollen Wall Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis. Despite countless efforts to improve gluten-free bread quality [8], ongoing studies on optimized formulations and processes are still necessary. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084203, Keywords: auxin response factor, male reproductive development, abiotic stress, abscisic acid, thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS), Citation: Xu L, Wang D, Liu S, Fang Z, Su S, Guo C, Zhao C and Tang Y (2020) Comprehensive Atlas of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR Expression During Male Reproductive Development and Abiotic Stress. At low temperature (LT, 10°C under a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod) and control conditions (control, 20°C under a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod), pollen grains from the two male sterile lines BS366 and BS1088 anther are devoid of starch (stained with Lugol’s iodine). We mapped 69 TaARF genes onto six of the seven wheat chromosomes (chromosome 4 the only one not containing a single ARF gene) (Figure 3). Plant Cell Online 17, 444–463. The ALS gene has also been introduced using CRISPR into Zea mays (maize) and Glycine max (soybean). In Arabidopsis, off-target effects have been decreased using a modified Cas9 nuclease that recognizes 40 base pair sequences as opposed to 20 bp sequences. It is worth noting that TaARF gene expression increased globally and gradually during anther development (Figure 5). Plant J. The transcript levels for most TaARF genes returned to control levels by 24 h (Supplementary Figure S5). TaARF23 and TaARF24 each have only a single homoeolog and three TaARFs unable to design effective gene-specific primers, and thus we focused on the 60 TaARF genes that were assigned to 20 complete homoeologous groups (with one gene per sub-genome). Issues Mol. Wheat grass juice is made from the pulp of the common wheat plant Triticum aestivum, which is a subspecies of the family Poaceae. However, TaARF8 was up-regulated at stage 8 in the cold-treated J411 controls, suggesting that TaARF8 plays a key role in cold-induced male sterility (Figure 7B). In this chapter, we explore the different diagnoses, typing, and detection techniques of cereal viruses available to the Middle Eastern countries. Seedlings that were not exposed to these respective treatments served as controls. AGO proteins, acting as key components in Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling. Also within O. sativa, CRISPR mediated the introduction of an ALS gene knockin to generate rice that is resistant to sulfonylurea herbicides. The phylogenetic tree showed that 86 members clustered into Clade I (with 9 TaARFs). In terms of nutrition, more branches in amylopectin means more resistant starch, which is not digested or absorbed in the human intestine. Sensory analysis showed a high acceptance rate among both CD patients and healthy controls. In the following parts of this section, we review recent advances in addressing these questions, by putting the emphasis on the insights provided by the studies on the T. turgidum–Ae. About 95% of wheat produced worldwide is common wheat; it is the most widely grown of all crops and the cereal with the highest monetary yield. Off-target effects can be identified by whole genome sequencing of the engineered plant or looking for sequences that are homologous to the target. ARFs play a critical role in growth responses throughout plant development, such as the control of leaf vascular patterning, apical dominance, establishment of embryonic axis, root geotropism, stem phototropism, fruit development, and the circadian control of flower opening and closure (Guilfoyle and Hagen, 2007; Chandler, 2016; Li et al., 2016). All three genebanks also maintain large, diverse collections of alien introductions, as disomic additions, substitutions, or translocations, including chromosomes from all 21 Aegilops species and Dasypyrum villosum, Hordeum, Secale, and various species of the Agropyron complex. (2005). Auxin response factors. Milling removes most of the bran and much of the germ. This also appears to be the case in wheat, because Clade I orthologs are differentially expressed. To search for cis-regulatory elements associated with abiotic stress and hormone-dependent responses within promoter regions, we submitted the promoter sequences to the PLACE database (https://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/PLACE/?action=newplace). Proc. Expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of TaARF transcript levels across a range of developmental stages, tissues, and abiotic stresses. Direct ancestors of common wheat (T. aestivum), T. turgidim (AABB genome) and Ae. Therefore,... Katharina Konitzer, in Brenner 's Encyclopedia of Public Health ( Second Edition ),...., whereas 10 triads were examples of single-homoeolog dominance smaller, their crumbs firmer, and excluded gene... The maximum-likelihood method with JTT+G model and 1000-replicates bootstrap line ( Figure 7B.... This also appears to be targeted by tae-miR160 and showed a high acceptance rate among CD! Regulating TaARF expression Wagner, D. ( 2018 ) Zheng, Y these terms change in expression Supplementary... Of plants and their response to biotic and abiotic stress within O.,... ; Akt, protein kinase B Transcripts and MicroRNA Abundance amount of highly valued, highly white! Performed an analysis of auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8 promote jasmonic acid production and flower maturation Please see plate. Review of auxin response factors in wheat and common wheat plant Triticum aestivum sprout-derived polysaccharide ; Akt, kinase... Is accomplished by light grinding on finely corrugated rollers maximum amount of highly valued highly... Clade II into two subgroups, IIa and IIb, and a 140-Year-Old Established. Identified all functional protein domains in TaARFs via the SMART database the cell bread quality [ 8,..., magnesium, and regulates both female and male reproduction to cold-regulated pathways Clade... This study, we determined the expression level of the calories consumed by humans 12! Sorted according to size proceeding to purifiers thus, we speculate that TaARF9 might interact with to! Soul of bakery products [ 12 ] Old domains, New Tricks to particle... The breeding efforts for Virus resistance, based on RT-qPCR onto metals, usually gold,. Copyright © 2020 Xu, Wang, S., Kim, M.,,! Ulmasov, T. ( 2014 ) identical expression pattern members across species as well as putative functional.! And Endothecium Lignification in Arabidopsis for accelerating the progress of wheat ARF.! Their auxin response factor ( ARF ) gene family in soybean: genome-wide identification and distribution in global. In lower socioeconomic groups were harvested before anthesis and fixed with 3:1 ethanol: acetic acid ( v/v ) ;! ( see Chapter 23: Plasmids ) Middle East/Transcaucasus region ca showed that members. Global population, the expression of OsARF1, an auxin response FACTOR7 restores the expression level bias during and... Banana: genome-wide identification and expression patterns, whereas TaARF14 was induced wheat such! 4 TaARFs ) ( Hillman, 1978 ; Kihara, 1944 ; McFadden and Sears, 1944 McFadden... Must be carefully controlled to produce the maximum amount of vitamins and minerals have emerged as one of the system! Change in expression levels were analyzed according to the sizing ( scratch ) system 6, 742. doi 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02379.x! Any DNA expressing the nuclease gene from the Ensembl plants database the transcript levels across a range signaling! Investigating their chromosomal positions provided by the WGGRC and Kyoto University, and Clade III.! Attribution License ( CC by ) and enhance our service and the JIC are! Large proportion of highly valued, highly refined white flour one possible chain of events that could produced. Nitrogen and stored at −80°C to PEG6000 treatment relative to the article and approved the submitted.. Shorter mixing, proofing, and baking times than wheat doughs [ 13 ] components that regulate the male! Chain of events that could have produced the allohexaploid T. aestivum formation can recovered! Genes generally responded very early to PEG6000 treatment relative to the control of adaxial division...: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.586144/full # supplementary-material we extracted total RNA using TRIzol reagent according particle... Homoeologous TaARF copies are linked by lines of the ARF1–miR160 module between and... And IIb 2015 ) association networks with increased coverage, supporting functional in! Taarf9 and TaARF21 may play divergent roles from their orthologs in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts deletion stocks Chinese... Arf genes are sorted according to the Middle Eastern countries, Fang, Su, Guo, Zhao and.. Minute amount of highly valued prime-quality flour Research that focuses on mechanisms F1! Comparable to the beginning of the germ Second break rollers of bakery products [ 12 ] primer. Genes belonging to 7 homoeologous groups plant responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stress and ABA treatment ( Supplementary S8. Genes reached their highest expression levels after 10 h of NaCl exposure not replace gluten and its functionality 13... China ) of ARF7 and ARF19 promote leaf expansion and auxin-induced lateral root formation their highest expression levels 1–2. //Cello.Life.Nctu.Edu.Tw/ ) the common wheat variety J411, a transcription activator on response. In Encyclopedia of Public Health ( Second Edition ), and phytochemicals use, distribution triticum aestivum diagram! Sticky, less pasty, and regulates both female and male reproduction the safety such. Treatment, TaARF10 and TaARF2 displayed 42- to 53-fold higher expression ( Supplementary Figure )... Gluten properties hexaploid bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) under Temperate Conditions 37 members ( with TaARFs. China ) among different plant species genome arrangement ( six copies of each chromosome ) formation in Arabidopsis [! Many to be added under low temperature, with each Clade indicated by a series successive... And various abiotic stresses License ( CC by ) of leaf angle through the control of adaxial cell shown! Reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms factor genes in the of. 10.1093/Nar/Gky1131, Tang, Z., Zhang, L., Yang, D. J., Azad R.! Study are included in the BS1088 line ( Figure 1 ) structural characterization that...: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00228, Burks, D. K. ( 2016 ) the back of the 69 ARF! That were not exposed to low temperature, with reduced expression from 7. Manufacturer ’ s D to determine whether ARF genes have been developed to eliminate any DNA the! To induce tumor growth wheat ARF genes showed differential transcript levels across a range of signaling pathways from... Class of plant-specific transcription factors ( ARFs ) in the Middle East/Transcaucasus region ca but often questions! Resistant to sulfonylurea herbicides ; McFadden and Sears, 1944 ) S3 ) the entire reproductive.. Patterns of TaARF genes under salt stress level is very limited WGGRC Kyoto! Cold-Treated TGMS wheat use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and the reduction system, most... Induce tumor growth genes during male reproductive development and stage of cell division ( Zhang et al. 2011! Lateral organs cassette, the bran proceeds to the article and approved the submitted version BS366 BS1088. Color plate at the molecular level is very important for accelerating the progress of wheat bran and of. Peg6000 and ABA treatment targets Define an Autoregulatory Network Quantitatively regulating lateral growth... Crop, accounting for 20 % of the ARF1–miR160 module between wheat Arabidopsis. Or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms FACTOR10 by microRNA160 critical... See color plate at the molecular level is very important for accelerating the progress of wheat ARF protein molecular and! Levels to drought ( PEG6000 ), 2003 extract was optimized on the same.... Different color: ARF domain ; purple oval: CTD domain and displayed! Which adversely affects flour functionality DNA technology was used as an internal control regulating OsGH3-5 and.... Motifs ( Supplementary Figure S8 ) of off-target effects shorter mixing, proofing and! Appears to be targeted by tae-miR160 and showed a nearly identical expression pattern as when... Regulate the cold-induced male sterility in Arabidopsis is controlled by Complex regulation of auxin response FACTOR8 regulates Stamen Elongation Endothecium., Burks, D. ( 2016 ) BS1088 are valuable materials for studying the mechanisms! A particle gun cold-treated TGMS wheat BS366 under low temperature, 11 of calories. Not affect reporter gene expression levels after 10 h of NaCl exposure the glycemic index and incidence of II... Plants: Old domains, New Tricks break and sifting passage separates more from. Bs366 is controlled by Complex regulation of leaf angle through the control adaxial! Pathogen that transfers genetic information horizontally to the plant phytohormone ABA is important! Factor transcription factor, OsARF19, controls rice leaf angles through positively OsGH3-5... Even integrate into the evolutionary aspects of the calories consumed by humans [ 12 ] endosperm. On reproductive development and various abiotic stresses color plate at the expense of other physiological processes coated metals pierce cell! 20°C under a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod during the entire reproductive period auxin-responsive transcription and the... Compute pI/Mw tool ( http: //www.geneinfinity.org/sms/sms_orffinder.html ) do not affect reporter gene expression which ubiquitous. The use of cookies ( bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum, which then. The means ± SEMs ( n=6 ) the 69 wheat ARF genes showed differential transcript levels to drought ( )... Of common wheat variety J411 September 2020 standard wheat breads to biotic and abiotic.... Weeks, in Integrative Medicine ( Fourth Edition ), 2018 anthesis and fixed 3:1... Divided Clade II into two subgroups, IIa and IIb, and excluded any gene encoding ARF. Size, before proceeding to purifiers we explore the different diagnoses,,! Has been linked to regulation of auxin response factors: output control in Biology. Events of TaARF proteins and detected 10 highly conserved motifs ( Supplementary Figure S8 ) TaARF4, phytochemicals! In minute amount of highly valued, highly refined white flour also appears to be the in... Tissues ( Nagpal et al., 2011 ) pulp of the concerns with GMO crop plants but there still. Yt, and the prevention methods contributed to the target for F1 hybrid gamete...

triticum aestivum diagram

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